D 1.1.1 - BE prone to SUOD definitions report
The first task of the WP1 focuses on the state of the art concerning the relation between Built Environment (BE) and Sudden-onset disasters (SUOD) considering the risks and human behavior.
To this end, the activities are divided in two parts, so as to outline a consolidated state of the art on these issues, and a first characterization of main factors characterizing the relation between BEs, their composing elements and the risks (i.e. SUODs). The first part of the investigation involves the detection and transposition of the various classification of risks of the scientific literature and international disaster risk reduction and assessment organizations.
The second step interested the BE, which can be defined as human-made surroundings that provide a setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter to neighborhoods, and large-scale civic surroundings.
Results on the disaster classification affecting the BE underline how one of the most significant categorizations distinguishes between SUOD and SLOD (Slow-Onset Disasters) according to the timing of the consequences, while other ratings consider source, frequency, scale, and predictability.
In particular, the Sudden-onset disasters are those events: whose occurrence cannot be predicted far in advance (e.g. from seconds for earthquakes, to weeks or months for volcanos activities); as an alternative definition, which take a short time to produce emergency conditions. Secondly, if considering the source of the disaster (natural and technological disasters), the specific SUOD affecting BE are organized by evaluating: predictability reaction time to alarm, source of risk for humans, influence between built environment and safety, and the reciprocal correlation between a couple of SUODs (primary/secondary).
These relations are illustrated, showing a database on European natural and technological disasters of the last century in which the primary and secondary disasters were correlated.
Results concerning the characterization of BE prone to SUODs underline how the primary importance of open spaces in the Built Environment as elements for characterizing them also in respect to the possible emergency phases and the behavior of the BEs users. A particular attention is given to the BEs constituting the base elements for urban areas (i.e. compact historic city) because of the related risk-affecting specific conditions (i.e. crowding, complexity of the overall BEs form, built element features, BEs uses).
Moving from different classifications of types of open spaces in the Built Environment, we proceeded to identify the morphological classes of BE representative of the variables of urban systems that interact with the identified SUODs risks.
The criteria are typology, geometric-Space characters, constructive characteristics, characteristics of use, environmental characteristics.
Finally, ten main types of BE morphology have been identified and grouped into two categories: Areal BE (Squares) and Linear BE (paths). In conclusion, thanks to this deliverable, the next step of the research will can take advantages of these results in the characterization of significant real SUOD-affected BE, by involving case studies and moving towards the definition of BE-Typologies prone to SUOD.