D 1.3.3 - Human behaviors in BE during the attack 

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Abstract 

Terrorist attacks, in the last decades, have contributed to reduce considerably citizen safety in the Built Environment. In order to develop risk-mitigation strategies, human behaviours (intended as individual’s and crowd's reactions to such sudden disasters) must be deeply inquired. Comprehending recurring behaviours and predicting possible individuals' choices can be useful to determine which factors (e.g.: the type of attack, overcrowding, users’ typologies) and BE conditions can mainly affect the emergency.

To this end, this deliverable uses results from previous studies on real-case observations (i.e. videotapes) from recent terrorist attacks all over Europe to assess qualitative and quantitative aspects in such attacks and then compare it to define common and typical reactions to such an emergency. Outcomes constitute the first complete database on this topic. Behavioural investigations are organized in relation to the emergency stages, by providing related statistical analysis on more frequent observed human reaction. Such results evidence how people tend to run far from the event trigger, but how the need of information about the event plays a fundamental role in timing and decisions.

Previous works results show the influence of boundary conditions (e.g. type of attack, BE scenario, damages, rescuers’ presence) on behaviours frequency. Individuals' motion speeds analysis (also in respect to density conditions) are compared to previous database concerning other emergencies (e.g.: earthquakes, fires, general-purpose), thus remarking differences in analyzed quantities. As a result, using terrorist acts-related databases in the risk assessment process and in the development of evacuation simulators is suggested by results. This database constitutes a starting point to be reused in future work packages to this aim.